A few months ago I started the “Rudiment Champion” challenge with my students. It only took about a week to realize a keyboard version was needed as well. I decided quickly on the name “Keymaster” because we’ve gotten into the habit in my program of referring to keyboard instruments and their players as “Keys”… also I love the original Ghostbusters movie
The Keymaster challenge has four levels. Each level has a collection of related skills, all using 2-mallet technique. It is my personal opinion that players are forced into the excessively technical world of 4-mallet techniques much too early, and generally long before they master the basic musical elements of their instrument. The Keymaster challenge, therefore, is a concise approach to mastering as many skills and fundamentals as possible before beginning more technically advanced studies.
Level 1: “Artist Scales”
I learned “Artist Scales” from Leigh Howard Stevens in 2005. They are a reaction against the kinds of scales typically played in band class, which are tailored for wind players. The challenge is to complete all 12 major scales in under three minutes following the rules on the worksheet.
Most students take between 25-30 minutes on their first attempt. As each technical or musical issue is mastered, times come down 3-5 minutes at a time, sometimes faster. It generally takes between 8-12 weeks to complete with weekly testing and correction. This is the single most valuable lesson I ever teach, because it makes students so completely accountable for results, and covers an enormous range of developmental areas: musical, technical and psychological.
Level 2: Scale Patterns
Scale patterns are about exactly one thing: breaking up the straight line from left to right to left mastered in “Artist Scales”, which results in mastery of the visual layout of the keyboard.
Students generally start on Scale Patterns before finishing “Artist Scales”, because the skills overlap somewhat. Students who complete “Artist Scales” in three minutes will frequently come back after 4-5 weeks of Scale Patterns and play “Artist Scales” in under two minutes on the first attempt. This is because the patterns force generalization of key layouts for each scale, which helps the brain to group and process information dramatically faster.
This skill is fundamental to sight reading, memorization, rapid learning, and improvisation, and underlies every other skill by speeding up the ability to see and create on the instrument.
Level 3: Ideo-Kinetics
Gordon Stout is a famous player and teacher, and the head of percussion at Ithaca College. He is known as one of the few marimbists who plays from music with page turners in concert. When asked about it he once replied, “By the time I’ve read a piece down 3 or 4 times I play it almost as well as I ever will. In the amount of time it would take me to memorize it, I could learn 8-10 more pieces.” His system and accompanying book? Ideo-Kinetics.
I have six very basic exercises to begin the study of Ideo-Kinetics. Stout’s book has dozens, but the principle is very simple: Know where the notes are by FEEL, not by SIGHT. The marimba is one of the only pitched instruments in the whole world that the player does not touch before playing. Even a pianist can touch the keys lightly before playing them. For us, touching IS playing. This system of finding notes accurately and consistency while essentially blind is fundamental to any level of playing beyond the most basic.
Level 4: Octave Scale Patterns
Using the material from Level 2, this final level tackles the challenges of:
- Not being able to see both notes at the same time
- Adjusting the distance of an octave as the bars get wider or narrower
Octaves are incredibly common in both 2- and 4-mallet playing. The secret is to apply pattern visualization and Ideo-Kinetics together, making it possible to simply add an octave to anything you can play. Easier said than done.
A Level 4 Keymaster is a person with a very highly tuned and tested understanding of tone production, line, groupings, body placement, and note accuracy, and has killer 2-mallet chops as well. Beginning 4-mallet technique with a player at this level is no longer about learning an instrument with four sticks in your hand, it’s about applying a new technique to a familiar instrument, and reaching for the same level of mastery from day one.
I know which position I’d rather be in.
I just finished reading “Practice, Made Perfect?” in the sports section of this week’s TIME magazine.
Once again, something I’ve been doing in isolation by accident turns up in an article and goes from a specific success to a general principle. It’s a good day
There was a time, not long ago, when it seemed like I was auditioning for everything all the time, and almost always winning. The secret to my sudden and unexpected success was what I called “rotation”. The idea was simple: Set up every piece on the audition in a circle, and walk around the circle, playing each piece once. When you get to 5 times around playing everything exactly how you want it, turn around and go the other direction. When you get that, tear the whole thing down, set it up in a different order and do it again. And again, and again, and again.
I usually took me about 100 hours to feel like I could nail an audition hanging upside down in my sleep underwater, which is what I was going for. My specific ability to play the audition became a general ability to play anything in my active repertoire exactly like I wanted, on demand, over and over and over.
These days I’m not auditioning for things very often, but I’m using “rotation” to prepare chamber music, recitals, orchestra parts, and to develop my student’s practice habits, all to great effect. I’ve never been so efficient with my time, or had such retention in my life. I’m not anywhere near the article’s “10,000 hours” with this method, but I’m seeing results I never dreamed of even 5 years ago.
Not long ago I started a challenge for some of my students called the “Rudiment Champion”. Basically, it’s a list of rudiments and drumming concepts, each played for one minute continuously to prove you have consistency and endurance. It’s actually pretty hard to do.
I sequenced rudiments/concepts in a logical developmental order, drawing on ideas from, among other things, Bill Bachman’s new book, Stick Technique, which everyone should own a copy of. I grouped forty different things into four levels, ten per level. After many iterations I landed on something I thought was pretty good.
My assumption was that most people would quit after Level 1, because it’s pretty hard, time-consuming, and gets you into territory that is less and less applicable outside of marching. The challenge, therefore, was to pack Level 1 full of the most fundamentally valuable stuff I could.
Here’s the Level 1 list:
- Long Roll
- 5-Stroke Roll
- 9-Stroke Roll
- 7-Stroke Roll (16th Base)
- 7-Stroke Roll (Triplet Base)
- Tap-Accent no. 1 (Based on Flam-Accent no. 1)
- Inverted Paradiddles (RLLR LRRL)
Upon reflection, I had to laugh at myself for starting with rolls, because so much time in my college rep classes was spent mocking early drum books for demanding that the open roll be mastered before introducing the quarter note. I TOTALLY GET IT NOW. The above list has no written component. This is drumming as a spoken (played) language. You get it by DOING it, preferably with others around you who already do it better than you do. Reading and academically understanding notes is all well and good, but in the end, it’s about pronunciation and execution, and that cannot be learned without hours of repetition, trial, error, and correction.
After some time spent teaching this, I organized the basic concepts on tone production, sticking coordination, and mental focus into three pages, designed to get you through Level 1. Here they are.
There are a few exercises on here very minimally adapted from Bachman’s book and named after him. Everyone should buy his book and get the full scope of what he’s doing, as it is incredible and what I have here is not representative.
In the past few years, my philosophy has become more inclusive, putting marching and concert ideas together in the same space. These sheets reflect that, and allow me to focus not only on the mechanics of how to get up and down between notes, but also the tone produced on every note. Indeed, mechanics and tone production inform and affect each other cyclically.
I’m by no means the only person doing this, and I’m always on the lookout for similar resources from people working and developing their ideas. If you know of any, please share in the comments!
Motivation and discipline are both about getting things done.
- Motivation is emotional, we work when we “feel” like it.
- Discipline is intellectual, we work because it’s a good idea.
When I think about emotions that make me “feel” like doing things, my short list is:
- Love: I just REALLY want to do things I love and be with people I love.
- Happiness: I enjoy feeling happy (who doesn’t?), and I find it easy to indulge in things that make me feel happy
- Hunger: The need to fill myself, physically or metaphorically, is insistent and grows continually until it is fulfilled.
- Anger: Sometimes I just really want to GET someone or GET BACK at someone. It’s hard to think of anything else when I feel that way.
- Fear: I don’t like bad things to happen to me. Avoiding trouble and pain is important enough to put everything else on hold until I’m out of danger.
All of those things are very MOTIVATING. I act after I FEEL. Motivation is REACTIVE, based on circumstances. If you exist in a motivation mind-set, someone or something else is always controlling you.
I often hear people talk about ways they try to motivate people. Based on my above understanding, that suggests to me what they actually mean is that they are trying to control people. That’s a problem for a few reasons. First, it’s temporary, and will not be sustained when the motivator is gone. Second, it’s dangerous because even when it is done with love and for the best reasons, people simply resent being controlled. Lastly, it’s self-centered, as if the people’s achievement was about accomplishing your goal of making them do something. Working with people is about helping THEM, not satisfying your own need for control.
When I think about things that are a good idea, my short list is:
- Exercise: I feel better and have a better life-view when I’m exercising regularly
- Practice: Improving my skills, polishing my chops, and generally improving my professional facility helps me be ready for professional opportunities
- Metronomes and A/V recorders: “Honesty Devices” as I call them. Intended for daily use.
- Reading: Learning new things and having new experiences through reading keeps me in touch with the world and fills me with humility and wonder.
- Writing: Creating valuable things and passing my ideas on to others can have positive effects and start new ideas in others that I will never know about
- Adding Value: Teaching, talking, and pouring myself into others for their benefit will always have a good return. I don’t know anyone who ever regretted it.
These things are not particularly emotionally energizing. They all require DISCIPLINE. As my leadership guru, John Maxwell said, “no one is excited about a paper when they’re still writing it”. They’re VERY excited after it’s done. Discipline is PROACTIVE, based on the goals, and the will of the individual. It is internal, and if you exist in a discipline mind-set, you control yourself.
“To do right is wonderful. To teach others to do right is even more wonderful – and much easier.” ~Mark Twain
When I hear people talking about discipline, they’re usually talking about punishment. It is not possible to “discipline” someone. The only kind of discipline is self-discipline, it’s an unemotional choice made freely by a person to improve their situation. If you got someone to behave how you wanted by doing something bad to them, you didn’t discipline them, you motivated them with punishment.
I find the public schools to be very motivation-heavy. Social pressure and grading creates a fear environment, and students learn how to survive, being led from one emotion to another all day, avoiding pain when they can, and generally escaping punishment as much as possible. There are plenty of individual exceptions, but that’s how the system is set up. The expectation is: do as you’re told, or else.
In my teaching, all my assignments are discipline-heavy, the early ones especially. I teach with a discipline-bias for two reasons: First, because so much of my success comes from consistent discipline. Second, because it makes the experience of learning with me instantly different, and quickly removes any negative school baggage from the relationship. In the first few weeks that I work with students, I see most transform from being semi-directionless, looking for instructions and an emotional charge, to being disciplined, focused, and looking for accountability. Their capacity for self-determination was always there, they were just used to not connecting with it.
The first and most important large assignment I give is “Artist Scales”, which I adapted from my work with Leigh Howard Stevens. It is a colossal undertaking, but any 6th grader with a 4 octave instrument can do it if they are willing to follow the process. No one has ever finished it for me in less than 4 weeks (it’s more likely to take upwards of 10), but by the time they can do it in under 3 minutes, they have a complete set of learning tools for any piece, and a disposition to match. As they get closer to 3 minutes, we cover other things as well in lessons, but we start every time with Artist Scales without fail until it’s done.
Most of my worksheets, lessons and literature expectations flow from this first assignment. The patterns of discipline developed early on form the basic habits of preparation in all music, and eventually, I hope, in all of life. Some day, I would like to look at the lives of my former students, and see that they met their highest ambitions in their chosen fields because they learned their Artist Scales
The principal of discipline is not about punishment. It’s about self-determination and a striving to achieve your personal goals whether you feel like doing it today or not. Motivation is powerful, and has its place, but it is fleeting and unsustainable. Discipline is powerful because it is sustainable, and its power grows the longer it is sustained.
If you wait to feel like doing something that is hard, you likely never will. If you do something anyway because you know it will help you, eventually the results it gives you will make you feel like continuing.
Over the past week a few ideas have come together for me and I feel ready to write about what I’ve been calling Growth Orientation. This is something I’m developing as a core philosophy and practice, and, as it is in development, I find it difficult to organize clearly. This week I made significant progress thanks to Tom Burritt’s post on drumchattr.com.
Tom has been reading on university programs and on-line course offerings, and I highly recommend reading his post and following his links to the articles he’s citing if you ever plan on attending a university (hint).
Here’s what I’m bringing together philosophically:
- My undergrad at Iowa State imprinted on me the statement, “Lifelong Learning”
- I strongly prefer the “apprenticeship” model of education to the “lecture” model
- I believe the successful study of any discipline requires developing universal tools of learning
- I don’t think anyone is responsible for my education but me
- I don’t feel personally responsible to anyone for their own learning
- I feel the internet makes the above two statements totally reasonable
- I find goals to be highly motivating… until completed, then they become highly demotivating
- I find the pursuit of college degrees to be at the heart of some of the saddest, most financially crippling stories I’ve ever heard
- I think individual entrepreneurialism based on individual brilliance is the new normal, and anyone who can be replaced cheaply or easily will be
- I find myself to be better at the service of building people with information and action than I am at generating and protecting exclusive, unique content
That’s a lot of disparate stuff, which is why I say I have a hard time focusing my material at this early stage. This is my current conclusion:
- Goals are temporary. The momentum gained while working on them reverses upon their completion. It is easier to talk about and remember how you were successful before than it is to be successful again.
- Growth is continual, and generates momentum the longer growth continues. The bigger you grow, the bigger you CAN grow and the bigger you WANT to grow.
- Therefore: Growth is a more beneficial focus in study over a long period, and Goals are only suitable as a temporary means to accomplish a short-term end.
- Furthermore: Because in western culture we are inundated with goal-oriented thinking all the time, special attention needs to be given to NOT making goals, but attending to steady growth instead.
Example: Marching season is over, so all my students are selecting pieces for solo and ensemble contest, because that’s the next major calendar event (goal). Inevitably I am asked over and over, “what should I play?”, which is a fair question, because you have to pick SOMETHING, but it’s November, and contest for many people is in late February or March.
If I set a piece as a goal now, we start a cycle, where we work for 4-5 months to get ready, then play, then move on. The challenge becomes selecting a piece that will be a suitable goal, and fulfill all our needs for that entire period.
IF, however, I refuse to choose a piece, and place our focus on maximizing growth during this period, there will be, among other things, pieces getting played, and when we get a few weeks away from contest, whatever is good at that time can be used.
Now the “goal” is relegated to its appropriate place as a short-term solution to a specific problem. We need a piece to play so we get feedback at contest. We pick a piece, we play, we get feedback. Done. The real value in the 4-5 months of study is the growth, and that may very well be accomplished better without a big contest piece.
The idea of Growth Orientation is one of service: I exist as a teacher to add value to my students. The content of lessons is not substantially different than what would be used in goal orientation. The pieces are mostly similar, the instruments are mostly similar, the specifics of each piece are mostly similar, etc. What is different is the emphasis on helping students to grow as people by growing as players, rather than on setting goals for completion of material or success at scheduled events.
This also eliminates the common idea that when a piece is learned it’s “done”. Anything that has its value defined by helping to complete a goal loses that value when the goal is complete. Any piece used in the growth process retains its value as long as growth continues, and could be called upon again at any time, for any suitable reason.
In goal orientation, each completed goal involves an opportunity for stagnation, because a new goal is needed to continue working with purpose. In growth orientation each small instance of growth leads to greater growth, because there is always one more obvious step to take.
What I want my students to take away from this idea is simple:
- You will need to learn and grow through your entire life and adapt to be successful.
- Learning itself is a skill you develop any time you learn anything.
- You are at the center of your own learning and growth. It really is all about you!
- Once you get good at it, no one will ever teach you better than you.
- The best way to grow to a higher level is to connect with someone who is beyond you at whatever specific thing you’re learning. Add their value to your own!
- Always take time to benefit others in their growth as well. It is impossible to help others without also helping yourself.
I will continue to develop this idea and write on it as it gets better. I’m using it in every aspect of my life, teaching, study and growth, and I can see its positive effects every day.
Without question the biggest three days of my professional year are at the Percussive Arts Society International Convention (PASIC). This year, PASIC was in Austin, Texas for the third time since I started attending in 2002. It is also composer John Cage’s 100th birthday this year, so in addition to the usual events, a special “Focus Theme” emphasized his contributions to percussion in the 20th century with concerts, talks and paper presentations.
It’s impossible to see or do everything at PASIC, so here is what I saw, loved, and think everyone should know about. It was a big year for me in a lot of ways and much of what I’ve been thinking about and working on took a huge leap forward as a result of this year’s events.
Nebosja Jovan Zivkovic Showcase Concert: This concert was impacted severely by Hurricane Sandy. Most of the players were trapped in Europe, and two of them landed in Austin literally an hour before they played. Zivkovic, being a wizard of the stage, played brilliantly anyway, and filled out the missing 30 minutes of his program with a GREAT clinic on how he connects his playing with singing. He played several of his works while singing them, either note-for-note, or by shape and concept, and it was awesome.
Zivkovic’s music always feels very natural to me, even the really weird stuff, and singing is the reason. He told us directly, “No singing, no music”. As sad as it was to hear that his concert wouldn’t go off as planned, I wouldn’t trade the last 30 minutes for anything.
Marching Percussion Festival: There are numerous competitions for high school and college students in marching percussion including: Solo snare and tenors, small ensemble, stand still large group and marching large group. The judges are among the greatest figures in the marching community, and the comments and feedback students receive is of exceptional value.
My favorite part of the competition is seeing groups very close to and slightly above the level I’m teaching at. It’s a great “mountain top” experience to look at a group and say “that is exactly the direction we could go in (6 months, 12 months, 2 years, etc)” or to realize there’s something about the way a group performs or an effect they add that I’ve never seen that could really improve what I’m doing. I could spend all day watching groups though I usually don’t, and I rarely fail to learn something.
Troy University Percussion Ensemble Showcase Concert: What a monster concert. Basically four guys carried the whole thing and were playing on set-ups they built themselves. The last piece on the program was by Aurel Hollo, who, if you don’t know, writes some of the most insanely cool percussion chamber music ever. The players built a metal box frame they stood in and around with their instruments attached all around it, hanging, swinging, and sticking out in all directions. It added a totally sweet visual/spatial element to all the crazy notes they were playing. If the concert ends up on YouTube I’ll link it, because it was a knock out. I love being around top-level anything, it reminds me how far I can go in my own work.
Bill Bachman “12 Rudiments=12 Hand Motions=Complete Hand Technique”: Sometimes a clinic changes your life. This one might change the future of drumming. Bill Bachman is one of the greatest marching tenor drummers ever, and he’s teaching the current generation of the best players in DCI and WGI. He has a very down-to-earth, common sense way of explaining some of the most technically complex ideas in percussion, and can deliver an idea with incredible clarity and brevity.
In 1933 the National Association of Rudimental Drummers (NARD) defined 13 essential rudiments in American drumming and 26 standard rudiments, and in the 80s the Percussive Arts Society (PAS) redefined them as 40 standard rudiments. Now we’re at another crossroads.
40 Rudiments seems like a lot, but actually a lot of them are very similar, to the point of being almost the same thing from an execution standpoint. Additionally, in practice there are hundreds of “hybrid” rudiments which combine elements of the 40 and are, in many cases, more common and WAY harder to play. Many of the rules for how to play the 40 do not account for the challenges of hybrids.
Bill has a new book, which I bought (devoured would be more accurate), called Stick Technique. It has 12 rudiments in it, and a collection of brutal chop-busting exercises in the back. By the time you master all his material on these 12 rudiments, you can play literally anything, because the rudiments are chosen based on how your hands have to move to play them, especially to play them fast.
I’m so pumped about the potential of this approach, I’m dedicating 30-60 minutes a day to mastering the book. I’ve already replaced several parts of my regular teaching material because this is way better than anything I’ve ever seen. I love geniuses, they make me more effective than I could be on my own.
Michael Burritt Showcase Concert: Mike Burritt is my personal hero, so anything I say is really biased. I think he’s pretty much the best thing ever. 8 years ago I started studying with him and he was so far beyond me I couldn’t really understand where that was. 6 years ago I could understand, and could not imagine anything better. Today, he’s better. Unimaginably, impossibly better.
It’s mostly his physical approach and tone production that freak me out. I don’t want to say “he has good technique” because that sounds academic and misses the point. He has great physical approach. He simply must be viewed to be understood. Fortunately, he makes movies. I’m working every day to capture his arm release and loose grip. It comes from structural stability and mechanical alignment, both of which are developed with lots and lots and lots of time and intent. That physical combination gives him a gesture that delivers weight into the bars and brings out a sound that lighter players can’t get. Same mallets, same instrument, different tone. Of the Steven’s Technique players, only he has it on that level that I’m aware of.
Thomas Burritt and the University of Texas at Austin Percussion Ensemble: Another crazy, monster concert by one of the best college programs in the world. Tom recently did a marimba concert in which he programmed a 30-minute set of works without pause in between. In order to do that he had to select the works carefully, create an expressive arc through all of them, and figure out how to change mallets and move from one work to the next without interrupting the musical line. Saturday’s concert was a 50-minute extension of this idea for chamber ensemble with choir and soloists.
Tom wrote a post on this concert the week before PASIC.
Basically this was a gripping ride with no time to breathe or react as an audience member from beginning to end. It was WAY better in that sense than a multi-movement work with pauses between movements, because it felt like ONE THING and not four things grouped together with the same title. I cannot wait to see how far this idea can go, and I hope I can start to toy with it myself in some much less ambitious way.
Sandi Rennick and the Santa Clara Vanguard Front Ensemble: This whole experience can be summed up very simply in a quote from Sandi during the clinic. “The exercise example we just played takes about 2 hours to complete with all the stickings and transpositions”. The SCV Front Line is crazy consistent, crazy strong and has crazy endurance. The exercises are the typical chords, scales and arpeggios, but taken to an extreme of re-voicing and transposition so that they take hours to play beginning to end. The material is all more exotic-sounding than usual, which keeps it interesting to listen to hour after hour. They play what I surmised to be about 5 times more music than the rest of the corps in the summer. They can only get the show so good without the full ensemble, and they can’t play with them while drill is being set, so they have time to rock 2-hour long exercises and learn all-new pieces while they wait for everyone else to be ready. In addition to that they are all college percussion majors and individually are total knock-out performers already.
What do you get when you combine great players with teamwork, leadership, and discipline? Winners.
So those are my big PASIC 2012 takeaways. I saw more stuff than that and lot of it was really good, but these are the things that will color my life for at least the next 12 months. I do my very best to never miss PASIC, because without the immersion and the experience of what’s happening right now, it’s easy to forget how fast our field is moving, changing and growing.
In 2009, shortly before returning to Iowa, I attended an adjudicator training/recertification for the Wisconsin School Music Association. The WSMA allows people to pick their own training dates, and I had the incredible fortune to randomly select a training attended by a very special group of people. It turns out the high school we met in was home to a group of classmates from the 1950s and 60s, who trained a multi-generation “extended family” of top-level band directors and players all across the state. About 30 of them were all having a reunion and getting their recertification together on the same day.
In addition to the usual review of state polices and appropriate documentation methods for scoring, we did a 2-hour masterclass with area middle and high school students and a 2-hour open forum discussion. I spent over half the day team-coaching with these incredible mentors and listening to them talk about their lifetimes of experience, successes and failures. Several of them had over 40-50 years under their belts, and it was an awe-inspiring group to be in the middle of.
Tim Wurgler, Program Director for the WSMA led great session on the role of an adjudicator, using materials from WGI/DCI legend George Oliviero. This is what he taught us, and my reflections upon it after 2 years of teaching and adjudicator-coaching with it.
At any moment in time, a student needs one of three things: An encourager, a teacher, or a critic.
- Encouragers are needed by students who aren’t sure if they want to stick it out. This may be young players who just started or just changed instruments, or it could be older players who feel they picked a bad piece or are in over their heads. The primary goal of an encourager is to keep them coming back for more, so they have a chance to work through their troubles.
- Teachers are needed by students who are committed to stay, but don’t have all the tools they need at their disposal yet. In my experience anxiety and a fear of failure is common here, either in the long term or in the moment during instruction. Students at this level like the experience of music, so they have something to lose by failing. In addition to improving the specifics of their playing, students need to learn how to “fail forward” and overcome their anxiety.
- Critics are needed by students who are hungry and fearless. Fearless, to me, means “not afraid of things that are not worth being afraid of”, like public performance and criticism. These students have an attitude of readiness, faith in themselves, and embrace both the positive and negative experiences of learning.
My favorite part about this method of instruction is the emphasis on attitude over ability. Any student, at any level, at any moment, needs one of these three things, no matter what.
Identifying which approach is needed is not a matter of teaching skill, but one of human interaction: Lack of confidence, despair, or self-consciousness is apparent in a student’s body language from the moment they walk in the door, and often revealed further in their playing. Similarly, confidence, desire, and a positive attitude are obvious as well, regardless of the level or accuracy of an individual performance.
Attitude is a far better predictor of success than talent or ability, because it addresses a student’s fundamental willingness to strive and work regardless of circumstance. Giving students specific feedback on their ability adds value to them. Helping students come back for more, equip themselves, and develop faith in their ability to grow multiplies value by empowering them continue after your interaction is over.
As a judge, it is possible to interact with a student only once in their life. In that moment, helping them move forward in terms of attitude can have a life-changing impact.
As a teacher, regularly navigating with a student from encouragement to critique can develop a bond that will last a lifetime.